The Cycle of Life:
An History of Experimental Ecology

Sterling Memorial
Kline Sciences
Medical Historical
Exhibit Map

In the 20th century, as microbiologists investigated the “Cycle of Life” at the microbial level, others did the same on a macroscopic scale. Thermodynamics had much to say about the ecological role of lakes, forests, and even Mother Earth. From this perspective, Yale University’s G. Evelyn Hutchinson founded ecosystem ecology. In the hands of his colleague Lynn Margulis it became symbiogenesis and the Gaia Theory.

  Vladimir Vernadsky, The Biosphere, 1926
  James Lovelock, The Ages of Gaia, 1972
  Lynn Margulis, The Origins of Life, 1960
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Lloyd Ackert
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