the 1880s, the Russian microbiologist Sergei Winogradsky synthesized
Cohn’s morphological taxonomy, Pasteur’s laboratory-based
microbial physiology, and his advisor Andrei Famintsyn’s
view of the “Exchange of Matter and Transformation of
Energy.” In the 1930s, Winogradsky developed his holistic
concept of “The Role of Microbes in the General Cycle
of Life” into an explicitly ecological science.