The Cycle of Life:
An History of Experimental Ecology

Sterling Memorial
Kline Sciences
Medical Historical
Exhibit Map

In the 1830s, chemists synthesized the work of Humboldt and Lavoisier in their investigations of all Nature's elements. Whether part of Dumas' French school or Liebig's German school, they shared an experimentalist approach, strong national pride, and a holistic view of nature in which all matter circulates eternally.
  Jean Baptiste Dumas, Essai de Statique Chimique, 3rd Edition, 1844
  Jean Baptiste Boussingault, Economie Rurale, 1843
  Justus Liebig, Chemistry in its Application to Agriculture and Physiology, 2nd English Edition, 1842
  Richard Kremer, The Thermodynamics of Life and Physiology, 1770-1880, 1990
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Lloyd Ackert
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