The Cycle of Life:
An History of Experimental Ecology

Kline Biology Tower
Sterling Memorial
Manuscripts & Archives
Kline Sciences
Medical Historical
Exhibit Map

Edwin Broun Fred and Selman A. Waksman, Laboratory Manual of General Microbiology (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1928).

In the early 1920s, a generation of microbiologists inspired by the work of Sergei Winogradsky and others, strove to make soil microbiology an independent scientific discipline. As such, it would need its own journals, institutions, and experimental methods. To satisfy that latter, in 1928, Fred and Waksman produced this laboratory manual for students of General Microbiology who were interested in working with soils and organisms isolated from the soil. They offered methods to isolate and cultivate bacteria, fungi, actinomyces, algae, and protozoa (the organisms associated with soil processes related to agriculture). They paid special attention to the physiology of these organisms and its relationship to the transformation carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous and sulphur.

Lloyd Ackert
Whitney Humanities Center
Yale University
53 Wall Street
P.O. Box 208298
New Haven, CT 06520
Office: (203).432.3112

The library is at the base of the Kline Tower at: