The Cycle of Life:
An History of Experimental Ecology

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Case 3

Philosophical Dialogues: Arne Naess and the Progress of Ecophilosophy (New York: Rowman & Littlefield, 1999), eds. Nina Witoszek and Andrew Brennan.

In his chapter, "Deep ecology: A New Philosophy for our Times," Warwick Fox draws on Arne Naess's 1972 distinction between "shallow" and "deep" ecology." Shallow ecology views humans as separate from their environment and as the source for all value, ascribing only instrumental value to the non-human world. On the other hand, deep ecology favors a relational, total field image, in which organisms are viewed "as knots in the biospherical net of field of intrinsic relations." Deep ecology strives to be non-anthropocentric by seeing humans as one particular strand in the web of life. The central intuition of deep ecology is the idea that there is no firm ontological divide between the human and non-human realms. Deep ecology begins with unity, not dualism. (Pp. 153-157)

Case 1
  William Paley, Natural Theology, 1794
  Carl Linnaeus, Nemesis Divina, 1758
  George Gregory, The Economy of Nature, 1804
 Case 2
  Vladimir Vernadsky, Biosphere and Noosphere, 1939
  Pierre Teilard de Chardin, Human Energy, 1969
  Pierre Teilard de Chardin, The Heart of Matter, 1978
Case 3
  John Neale Dalton, The Book of Common Prayer, 1920
  Joan Halifax, The Fruitful Darkness, 1993
  Hans Dirk van Hoogstraten, Deep Economy, 2001
  Lynn Margulis and Dorian Sagan, The Garden of Microbial Delights, 1993
  Nina Witoszek and Andrew Brennan, eds., Philosophical Dialogues, 1999
  Roger S. Gottlieb, ed., This Sacred Earth, 2004
Lloyd Ackert
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